For most Americans, there are two main choices after death: burial or cremation. But now people in Washington State have a third legal option: They can have their bodies turned into soil.
Gov. Jay Inslee signed legislation on Wednesday allowing the practice of “aboveground decomposition,” making Washington the first state in the nation — and likely the first place in the world, legal experts said — to explicitly allow human remains to become compost.
“Washington is progressive when it comes to the environment and death care,” said Katrina Spade, the founder of a Seattle company that is pioneering the method and a main advocate of the legislation, which she proposed after writing a master’s thesis on urban burial as a graduate student in architecture.
Washington’s new law, which takes effect in May 2020, will allow bodies to be placed in a receptacle, along with organic material like wood chips and straw, to help speed up the natural transition of human remains into soil. Farmers use a similar process to compost the bodies of livestock.
To test the process, Washington State University conducted a study in which six bodies donated for research were put in a rotating container and wrapped in organic materials like alfalfa, then bathed in air warmed by microbes. The bodies decomposed after about four weeks, the researchers said, producing about one cubic yard of soil per person.
Ms. Spade, 41, said that for about ,000, her company will be able to turn bodies into compost and return the soil to loved ones to be spread on a garden or to help grow a tree, just as people can spread cremated ashes. The price is less than an elaborate burial service in many places, but more than the most basic cremation.
The two traditional means of disposing of human remains come with drawbacks. Burial takes up land, which is increasingly scarce in cities. And cremation, which recently surpassed burial as the most popular choice for disposing of human remains, produces significant greenhouse gases.
“I think it’s terrific to open up alternatives, so people have additional choices that are both honest and elegant,” said Karla Rothstein, an architect and the director of DeathLab, a research group of architects, scientists and theologians at Columbia University that studies the burial-space problem in cities.
“It’s encouraging that Washington State is leading a progressive acceptance of practices that are more commensurate with what people value,” Ms. Rothstein said.
The Catholic Church had opposed the bill, saying that composting ran contrary to church doctrine. “Disposing human remains in such a manner fails to show enough respect for the body of the deceased,” Joseph Sprague, executive director of the Washington State Catholic Conference, wrote in a letter to a legislative committee.
Composting is an ancient alternative to burial, even though it is rarely practiced in the current United States. But Washington seems an apt place to attempt a comeback: A larger percentage of its residents are cremated than in any other state. And only California and New York have more so-called green cemeteries, which bury people without embalming, caskets and headstones and leave land wild rather than landscaped.
Mr. Inslee, a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, has made environmental issues a focus of his campaign.
Aboveground decomposition, its advocates say, is attractive for ecological and financial reasons. There is no coffin, no chemicals and none of the fossil fuels necessary for cremation. Some studies have shown that the energy used to cremate one body is the same as the monthly home-energy demands of an average American.
Additionally, there is no need for a pricey cemetery plot. And some religious traditions favor ideas of simplicity and of earth returning to earth.
Ms. Spade said her company, Recompose, is looking for warehouse space in Seattle and is planning to have 20 to 25 steel vessels ready for human composting by late 2020.
The law will also allow for a process called alkaline hydrolysis, sometimes known as liquid cremation, in which heat, pressure, water and chemicals like lye are used to reduce the amount of human remains. The process is legal in 19 other states.B:
2017105期跑狗图【解】【语】【顺】【利】【进】【入】【帝】【都】【大】【学】，【遇】【到】【温】【柔】【美】【丽】【的】【舍】【友】【程】【绯】【绯】，【两】【人】【很】【快】【成】【为】【朋】【友】。 【蔚】【谨】【和】【解】【语】【在】【同】【一】【个】【大】【学】【校】【区】，【两】【人】【经】【常】【一】【起】【吃】【饭】、【结】【伴】【外】【出】。【程】【绯】【绯】【因】【此】【认】【识】【蔚】【谨】，【对】【蔚】【谨】【一】【见】【钟】【情】。 【程】【绯】【绯】【委】【婉】【地】【对】【蔚】【谨】【表】【示】【好】【感】，【但】【蔚】【谨】【一】【直】【躲】【着】【对】【方】。【后】【来】【程】【绯】【绯】【缠】【得】【紧】【了】，【他】【才】【把】【话】【挑】【明】，【他】【喜】【欢】【的】【是】【解】【语】，【但】【不】【敢】【让】【解】
【终】【于】【还】【是】【要】【走】【了】，【尽】【管】【聂】【远】【航】【在】【心】【里】【渴】【望】【着】【出】【现】【奇】【迹】，【就】【犹】【如】【电】【视】【剧】【中】【演】【的】【那】【样】【在】【即】【将】【离】【别】【的】【最】【后】【一】【秒】，【女】【主】【出】【现】，【然】【后】【两】【人】【皆】【大】【欢】【喜】，【但】【是】【事】【实】【就】【是】【事】【实】，【她】【没】【有】【出】【现】。 “【要】【走】【了】？”【沈】【丽】【问】【道】。 “【嗯】！”【这】【个】“【嗯】”【字】【从】【他】【的】【鼻】【子】【里】【钻】【出】【来】，【弄】【的】【他】【鼻】【子】【酸】【酸】【的】！【他】【知】【道】【有】【些】【事】【情】【只】【能】【永】【久】【的】【留】【在】【回】【忆】【中】【了】
【憋】【了】【挺】【长】【一】【段】【时】【间】，【决】【定】【开】【这】【本】【新】【书】。 【仍】【然】【采】【取】【幕】【后】【风】【格】，【来】【写】【一】【本】【有】【关】【于】【超】【级】【英】【雄】【的】【小】【说】。 【书】【名】：【缔】【造】【超】【能】【力】【女】【团】。 【不】【是】【漫】【威】【和】DC【的】【同】【人】【哦】，【希】【望】【各】【位】【支】【持】【一】【下】，【谢】【谢】(*°∀°)
【看】 skt rng【比】【赛】。
【最】【近】【这】【段】【时】【间】【一】【直】【都】【没】【有】【更】【新】，【说】【出】【去】【的】【话】【又】【都】【是】【空】【话】【了】。【不】【写】【小】【说】【的】【日】【子】【起】【初】【过】【的】【还】【不】【错】，【上】【班】，【追】【剧】，【喝】【茶】，【带】【娃】，【终】【于】【有】【点】【时】【间】【喘】【口】【气】【了】。【不】【过】【我】【很】【快】【发】【现】，【写】【小】【说】【的】【好】【处】【不】【是】【赚】【钱】，【当】【然】【我】【也】【没】【赚】【到】【钱】，【它】【最】【大】【的】【好】【处】【是】【没】【时】【间】【花】【钱】。 【而】【且】【就】【算】【不】【被】【小】【说】【的】【剧】【情】【人】【物】【心】【烦】，【还】【是】【会】【被】【现】【实】【中】【的】【各】【种】【妖】【魔】【心】【烦】2017105期跑狗图【谷】【天】【嘴】【中】【怒】【吼】【一】【声】，【瞬】【间】【从】【段】**【的】【幻】【境】【之】【中】【挣】【脱】【了】【出】【来】，【不】【过】【下】【一】【刻】【一】【把】【星】【辰】【之】【剑】【则】【是】【直】【接】【斩】【落】【而】【来】！ 【谷】【天】【毫】【不】【犹】【豫】，【身】【后】【三】【尊】【火】【焰】【战】【魂】【则】【是】【瞬】【间】【爆】【发】，【向】【着】【那】【星】【辰】【之】【剑】【便】【是】【轰】【去】！ 【两】【人】【的】【攻】【击】【瞬】【间】【爆】【炸】，【下】【一】【刻】【段】**【再】【度】【斩】【出】【第】【二】【剑】【摘】【星】【剑】【法】，【比】【之】【前】【更】【为】【可】【怕】【的】【星】【辰】【之】【剑】【则】【是】【落】【来】！ 【而】【此】【刻】，【叶】【一】
【魔】【女】【的】【政】【权】【单】【位】，【很】【大】【程】【度】【上】【已】【经】【与】【国】【际】【一】【体】【化】，【更】【多】【的】【时】【候】【会】【以】‘【魔】【女】’【为】【总】【称】，【对】【任】【何】【外】【星】，【异】【界】，【异】【空】【间】【的】【行】【政】【单】【位】【贯】【彻】‘【一】【个】【魔】【女】【原】【则】’【的】【外】【交】【方】【针】。 【而】【考】【试】【很】【简】【单】【的】【分】【别】【为】A1【是】【地】【方】【考】，【也】【就】【是】【基】【本】【会】【按】【照】【每】【个】【地】【区】，【每】【个】【国】【家】【的】【国】【情】【不】【同】【来】【进】【行】【考】【试】。 【譬】【如】【说】【在】【一】【些】【教】【育】【稍】【微】【落】【后】【的】【国】【家】，【魔】【女】